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The History of Chess

550 A.D. Chaturanga, the earliest precursor of chess, is created in the Punjab. Future variations on chess will use dice to determine the moves.
600 Chess is mentioned in Persian poetry and literature.
620 Chess spreads to Egypt.
690 Chess prohibited in Japan by Emperor Jito.
700 Sa'id Bin Jubair plays the first game of blindfold chess.
770 First mention of women playing chess.
800 Chess spreads to Europe from the Moors into Spain and from Charlemagne's Empire.
1000 Chess spreads to Russia from Byzantium.
1010 Chess brought to England via the Danish invasion.
1100 Chess is now a regularly accepted feature of noble life.
1150 The oldest known chess set, the Isle of Lewis set, discovered in 1831, dates from this period.
1175 A French manuscript uses Algebraic Notation.
1220 Dice are no longer used to determine chess moves.
1275 The optional double pawn move on the pawn's first move is introduced in Italy.
1422 First mention of stalemate as a draw.
1475 - 1500 Several books exclusively about chess are printed, the most notable being "The Game and Playe of the Chesse" by William Caxton. This is generally considered the birth of 'modern' chess.
1490 The En Passant move is introduced.
1496 "Art of Chess" is written by Luis de Lucena.
1509 Chess is introduced to Indonesia (Java) by Portuguese explorers.
1555 Castling as a single move is introduced.
1561 Ruy Lopez de Segura (1530-1580) introduces the term gambit. He also proposes the 50-move draw rule.
1613 In Shakespeare's "The Tempest" Ferdinand and Miranda play chess.
1641 First mention of chess in the Americas by Dutch settlers.
1656 The first published smothered mate occurs in Beale's "Royall Game of Chess Playe".
1670 The Café de la Regence is established in Paris.
1683 Piacenza describes flank openings as 'fianchetti'.
1690 The first book to classify openings is published.
1745 First edition of Hoyle's games published, with a section on chess.
1749 "L'Analyse du Jeu des Echecs" by Philidor (1726 - 95) is published.

"Pawns are the soul of Chess"
1769 Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen invents "The Turk".
1786 "The Morals of Chess" is written by Benjamin Franklin while in France, and published in London.
1804 The first correspondence game is played between the Hague and Breda.
1813 The first newspaper chess column appears in the Liverpool Mercury.
1824 Evans (1790 - 1872) discovers the Evans Gambit.
1825 - 1826 Edinburgh defeats London (+2-1=2) in a correspondence match. The Scotch Opening is named for this match.
1827 "The Turk" is exposed as an automaton by the Baltimore Gazette.
1834 Louis Charles Labourdonnais and Alexander McDonnell play 85 games in 6 matches. These are the first matches of consequence.
1836 St. Amant is the first to suggest that chess have a time limit.
1836 The first chess magazine, "Le Palamede", is published in France.
1838 First use of the term "Grandmaster".
1843 Staunton defeats St. Amant (+11-6=4) in a match and wins 100 pounds. This was the first match to use seconds.
1844 Chess is first played by telegraph between Washington and Baltimore.
1846 Stanley defeats Rousseau in the first organized chess event in the U.S. (+15-8=8)
1849 The first documented chess tournament is held in London (Buckle won).
1851 The first international chess tournament is held in London (Anderssen won).
1854 The Turk is destroyed by fire in Philadelphia.
1857 Paul Morphy wins the first official tournament in the U.S.
1861 The first timed chess game is tried using an sandglass.
1866 Wilheim Steinitz defeats Adolf Anderssen and becomes the first official World Champion.
1867 First match with mechanical clocks.
1868 English cabinet maker Charles Arthur Hooper invents "Ajeeb".
1878 First use of a sealed move to adjourn a chess game.
1878 Charles Godfrey Gumpel demonstrates "Mephisto".
1882 Frideswide Beechey is the first woman to write a chess column and win a brillancy prize.
1883 Forsythe notation is first used to describe a chess position.
1884 The first patent for a double-faced chess clock is awarded.
1884 The first woman's chess tournament takes place in Sussex.
1892 First use of abbreviated Descriptive notation.
1894 Emmanuel Lasker defeats Steinitz 12-7, to become World Champion.
1895 The first cable match between England and the U.S. begins.
1895 The title of Grandmaster is first bestowed in St. Petersburg.
1895 First use of the Swiss pairing system takes place in Zurich, invented by Muller.
1904 The British Chess Federation is founded.
1906 First National Correspodence Assocation, the British CCA, formed.
1911 First publication of "Modern Chess Openings".
1914 Russian players participating in Mannheim tournament interned in Germany when WWI breaks out.
1916 The Cafe de la Regence, after remaining open for almost 250 years, closes due to World War I.
1920 Alekhine becomes the first Russian champion.
1921 Jose Raul Capablanca defeats Lasker 9-5 to become World Champion.
1922 Marshall Chess Club opens.
1923 Reti's "Modern Ideas in Chess" is published.
1924 "Federation Internationale des Echecs" (FIDE) is founded.
1925 Nimozwitsch's "Mein System" is published.
1927 Vera Menchik becomes the first Women's World Champion.
1927 Alexander Alekhine defeats Capablanca 18.5 - 15.5 to become World Champion.
1928 The IFSB is formed for correspondence chess.
1930 Poland wins the first Chess Olympiad held in Hamburg.
1935 Max Euwe defeats Alekhine 15-5 - 15.5 to become World Champion. Alekhine regains title from Euwe two years later.
1937 Koltanowski plays 34 blindfold games simultaneously, winning 24, drawing 10, and losing none.
1945 Radio match is played between the USSR and USA. USSR wins 15.5 - 4.5.
1946 The USSR finally joins FIDE.
1946 The first offical USCF publication, "Chess Life", is launched.
1947 Alan Turing specifies the first computer program for chess. Three years later he will write the first chess program.
1948 Mikhail Botvinnik becomes World Champion two years after the death of Alekhine.
1950 FIDE sanctions titles, including Master and Grandmaster.
1957 Vassily Smyslov defeats Botvinnik to become World Champion. Botvinnik regains the title in a rematch the following year.
1959 First use of the Elo rating system.
1960 Mikhail Tal defeats Botvinnik to become World Champion. Botvinnik, once again, regains the title in the next year's rematch.
1962 Bobby Fischer accuses Russians of cheating after placing 4th in a Candidates match.
1963 Tigran Petrosian defeats Botvinnik to become World Champion.
1966 Fischer wins 8th and final US Championship.
1967 MacHACK VI becomes the first computer chess program to defeat a rated human (1510) at the Massachussetts State Championship.
1968 IM David Levy makes a $3000 bet that no chess computer will beat him in 10 years. He wins his bet.
1969 Boris Spassky defeats Petrosian to become World Champion.
1969 Fischer's "My 60 Memorable Games" is published.
1970 The first all-computer championship is won by CHESS 3.0, from Northwestern University.
1972 Bobby Fischer defeats Spassky (12.5- 8.5) in Iceland to become World Champion.
1975 Fischer refuses to defend his title, and it is taken by default by Anatoly Karpov.
1976 The first microcomputer chess playing machine, Chess Challenger, is created and becomes immensely popular.
1977 CHESS 4.5 wins the Minnesota Open. Stenberg becomes the first Class A player to lose to a computer.
1977 Gaprindashvili becomes the first woman to win a "men's" tournament at Lone Pine.
1981 Cray Blitz wins the Mississippi State Championship with a perfect 5.0 score. It was the first time a computer defeated a master in tournament play.
1985 Garry Kasparov defeats Karpov 13 - 11 to become World Champion.
1992 Fritz 2 defeats Kasparov in a 5-minute game. This is the first time a World Champion loses to a computer in any chess game.
1992 Fischer beats Spassky 17.5 - 12.5 in acclaimed rematch.
1996 IBM's Deep Blue beats World Champion Garry Kasparov in a single game, the first time the best human in the world is beaten by a computer at tournament time controls. Kasparov wins the match by a score of 4 - 2.
1997 Deep Blue defeats Kasparov 3.5 - 2.5 in a rematch. IBM announces that Deep Blue is retired.
2000 Vladimir Kramnik defeats Kasparov to become World Champion.
2008 Viswanathan Anand defeats Kramnik to become World Champion.

Now go make some chess history of your own...